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Media, culture and society : an introduction / Paul Hodkinson.

By: Hodkinson, Paul.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: London : Sage Publications Ltd, 2017Edition: 2nd ed.Description: xi, 326 p. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9781473902367 (pbk. : alk. paper); 9781473902350.Subject(s): Mass media | Mass media -- Social aspects | Popular culture | | Communication and mass media November2018Genre/Form: -- Reading bookDDC classification: 302.23
Contents:
1. Introduction -- Introduction -- Media, Culture, Society -- Starting Points: Shaping, Mirroring and Representing -- The Communications Process -- Transmitters, Receivers and Noise -- Who Says What in Which Channel to Whom With What Effect? -- Linear and One-Dimensional -- Elements of Media in Socio-Cultural Context -- Media, Power and Control -- Media, Identity and Culture -- Making Connections -- 2. Media Technologies -- Introduction -- Classic Medium Theories -- McLuhan: The Medium is the Message -- Kill Your Television -- Technological Determinism -- Hot, Cool or Both? -- Generalisation and Reification -- Technologies and Social Contexts -- Capacities and Constraints -- Into the Digital Age -- Convergence -- Interactivity -- Diversification -- Mobility -- The Internet as Solution to or Cause of Social Ills -- Democracy and Freedom? -- Isolation and Superficiality -- Digital Technologies in Context -- Conclusion -- 3. Media Industry -- Introduction -- Media Organisations -- Commercial Ownership -- Concentration of Ownership = Concentration of Ideas? -- The Bottom Line: Sources of Revenue -- Advertising Revenue -- Direct User Payment -- Payments Between Media Companies -- Maximising Audiences -- The Role of Sponsors -- Governments and Regulation -- Access Restrictions -- Ownership Restrictions -- Content Regulation -- Deregulation -- Regulation to Support Industry: Copyright -- Conclusion: Economic Determinism? -- 4. Media Content -- Introduction -- Media Texts as Arrangements of Signs -- Signs as Arbitrary? -- Levels of Meaning -- Signs as Relational -- Uncovering Mythology -- Limitations of Semiology -- Narrative, Genre and Discourse Analysis -- Narrative Analysis -- Genre Analysis -- Discourse Analysis -- From Quality to Quantity: Content Analysis -- 'Objective, Systematic and Quantitative' -- Categories and Coding -- Population and Sample -- Case Study: Gerbner and Television Violence -- Limitations of Content Analysis -- Conclusion: Putting Texts into Context -- 5. Media Users -- Introduction -- US Empirical Traditions of Audience Research -- Effects Research -- Limited Effects and Two-Step Flow -- Uses and Gratifications -- Functionalist and Complacent? -- Cultural Studies: Dominant and Oppositional Readings and Beyond -- Encoding, Decoding and Preferred Meanings -- Social Context and Differential Readings -- Audiences as Producers of Meaning -- Ethnographies of Audiences, Fans and Users -- Digital Participatory Culture? -- An Audience Continuum -- Conclusion: An Uncritical Celebration? -- 6. Media as Manipulation? Marxism and Ideology -- Introduction -- Marxism and Ideology: Basics -- The Culture Industry as Mass Deception -- Unsupported Elitism? -- Ideological Meanings -- Beyond Marx's Materialism -- Case Study: Consumerist Myths -- Political Economy and Ideology -- Manufacturing Consent -- Cultural Imperialism as Globalisation of Ideology -- Arguments and Criticisms -- Political Economic versus Cultural Approaches -- Complex Communication Flows and Consumer Resistance -- Conclusion: Avoiding Easy Dismissals -- 7. The Construction of News -- Introduction -- Selection, Gate-Keeping and Agenda Setting -- News Values -- Out of Date? -- Case Study: Major Terrorist Attack Stories -- Constructing Stories -- Differences Between Outlets -- Medium -- Style and Market Position -- Political Stance -- Similarities: Back to Bias and Ideology? -- Class Bias -- Institutional Bias -- The Powerful Influencing the Powerful -- Infotainment and the persuit of clicks -- Conclusion: Signs of Hope? -- 8. Public Service or Personal Entertainment? Controlling Media Orientation -- Introduction -- Public Service Broadcasting -- Reith and the BBC -- Contrasting PSB Arrangements -- Developing PSB Principles -- Enabling or Imposing? -- Censorship: Preventing Harm and Offence -- Avoiding Offence -- Pornography -- Violence -- Preventing Harm or Inhibiting Freedom? -- Commercial Competition and Consumer Choice -- Neo-Liberal Approaches -- US Broadcasting: A Free Market Model -- Digitalisation and the Decline of Regulation -- Digital Censorship -- Conclusion: A Rosy Commercial Future? -- 9. Advertising: Emergence, Expansion and Transformation -- Introduction -- The Development of Advertising -- Emergence -- Growth and Professionalisation -- Post-Fordism, Niche Markets and Branding -- Modes of Persuasion: From Information and Use to Symbols and Identity -- Developing Frames -- Cultivating Cool -- Shifting Yet Mixed Approaches -- Advertising in the Digital Age -- Challenges to 'Traditional' Advertising -- A New Era of Advertising? -- Critical Perspectives on Advertising -- Manipulative Magic -- Subversive Consumers -- Interactive or Co-optive? -- Conclusion: Ubiquitous Commercialism -- 10. Media and the Public Sphere: Digitalisation, Commercialisation and Fragmentation -- Introduction -- Media and the Public Sphere -- Habermas' Public Sphere -- Media and Public Engagement -- Nation as Imagined Community -- Decline of the Public Sphere -- From Facilitators to Shapers -- Commercially Driven Content -- A Digital Public Sphere? -- Online Participation and Democracy -- Enduring Power Differentials -- Fragmentation -- Globalisation -- Conclusion: Decline of the National Public -- 11. Media, Community and Difference: From Mass Stigmatisation to Grassroots Identity Groups -- Introduction -- Media as Eroder of Difference -- Homogenisation and Atomisation -- Individualisation as De-Differentiation -- Stigmatising (and Amplifying) Difference -- Poverty Porn? A Stigmatised Underclass -- Folk Devils, Moral Panics and Labelling -- Targeting Community -- Local Media -- Niche Media and Interest Groupings -- Participatory Media and DIY Community -- DIY Print Media -- Online Micro-Communication -- Virtual Communities? -- Social Network Sites: Community or De-Differentiation? -- Conclusion: Communities or Loose Affinities? -- 12. Media, Race and Ethnicity -- Introduction -- Racism and Exclusion -- Representation -- Under-Representation -- Stereotypical Representations -- The Reproduction of Subordination -- Promoting 'Positive' Images -- Reversing Stereotypes of Passivity -- Successful, Well-Adjusted, Integrated -- The Burden of Representation -- Hybridity, Diaspora and Transnationalism -- Shifting Ethnicities -- Diaspora -- Representing Diaspora -- Transnationalism -- Media Segregation? -- Newspapers, Film and Global Bollywood -- Ethnic and Transnational Specialisation in the Digital Era -- Conclusion: Empowerment or Ghettoisation? -- 13. Media, Gender and Sexuality -- Introduction -- Constructions of Femininity -- Marginalisation of Women -- The Male Gaze -- Patriarchal Romance and Domesticity -- Post-Feminist Independence? -- Enduring Objectification -- Elitist Critics? -- Empowering Possibilities -- Reading the Romance -- Subversive Pleasures? -- Feminist Prosumers? -- Identifying Agency, Remaining Critical -- Media and Masculinities -- Masculinity or Masculinities? -- Contradictory Representations: Lads and Beyond -- Beyond Heterosexuality -- Conclusion: A Balanced Approach -- 14. Saturation, Fluidity and Loss of Meaning -- Introduction -- Saturation as Loss of Meaning -- Consumerism: Expansion and Speed-Up -- Information Overload -- Media = Reality -- From Truth, to Ideology, to Simulacra -- Celebrity Culture as Hyperreal -- Identity: Fragmentation and Fluidity -- Recycling and Pastiche -- The Internet As Virtual Playground -- Simulated Identity? -- Internet as Extension of Everyday Life -- Case Study: Social Media -- Conclusion: Saturated but Real?
Summary: Paul Hodkinson's bestseller is back, once again exploring the concepts and complexities of the media in an accessible, balanced, and engaging style. Additions to the second edition include: A new chapter on advertising and sponsorship. Extensive revision and updating throughout all chapters. New material on technologies, censorship, online news, fan cultures and representations of poverty. Greater emphasis on and examples of digital, interactive and mobile media throughout. Fully reworked chapter on media, community and difference. Up-to-date examples covering everything from social media, contemporary advertising, news events and mobile technologies, to representations of class, ethnicity and gender. Combining a critical survey of the field with a finely judged assessment of cutting-edge developments, this second edition cements its reputation as the 'must have' text for any undergraduate student studying media, culture and society.
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Includes bibliographical references and index.

1. Introduction --
Introduction --
Media, Culture, Society --
Starting Points: Shaping, Mirroring and Representing --
The Communications Process --
Transmitters, Receivers and Noise --
Who Says What in Which Channel to Whom With What Effect? --
Linear and One-Dimensional --
Elements of Media in Socio-Cultural Context --
Media, Power and Control --
Media, Identity and Culture --
Making Connections --
2. Media Technologies --
Introduction --
Classic Medium Theories --
McLuhan: The Medium is the Message --
Kill Your Television --
Technological Determinism --
Hot, Cool or Both? --
Generalisation and Reification --
Technologies and Social Contexts --
Capacities and Constraints --
Into the Digital Age --
Convergence --
Interactivity --
Diversification --
Mobility --
The Internet as Solution to or Cause of Social Ills --
Democracy and Freedom? --
Isolation and Superficiality --
Digital Technologies in Context --
Conclusion --
3. Media Industry --
Introduction --
Media Organisations --
Commercial Ownership --
Concentration of Ownership = Concentration of Ideas? --
The Bottom Line: Sources of Revenue --
Advertising Revenue --
Direct User Payment --
Payments Between Media Companies --
Maximising Audiences --
The Role of Sponsors --
Governments and Regulation --
Access Restrictions --
Ownership Restrictions --
Content Regulation --
Deregulation --
Regulation to Support Industry: Copyright --
Conclusion: Economic Determinism? --
4. Media Content --
Introduction --
Media Texts as Arrangements of Signs --
Signs as Arbitrary? --
Levels of Meaning --
Signs as Relational --
Uncovering Mythology --
Limitations of Semiology --
Narrative, Genre and Discourse Analysis --
Narrative Analysis --
Genre Analysis --
Discourse Analysis --
From Quality to Quantity: Content Analysis --
'Objective, Systematic and Quantitative' --
Categories and Coding --
Population and Sample --
Case Study: Gerbner and Television Violence --
Limitations of Content Analysis --
Conclusion: Putting Texts into Context --
5. Media Users --
Introduction --
US Empirical Traditions of Audience Research --
Effects Research --
Limited Effects and Two-Step Flow --
Uses and Gratifications --
Functionalist and Complacent? --
Cultural Studies: Dominant and Oppositional Readings and Beyond --
Encoding, Decoding and Preferred Meanings --
Social Context and Differential Readings --
Audiences as Producers of Meaning --
Ethnographies of Audiences, Fans and Users --
Digital Participatory Culture? --
An Audience Continuum --
Conclusion: An Uncritical Celebration? --
6. Media as Manipulation? Marxism and Ideology --
Introduction --
Marxism and Ideology: Basics --
The Culture Industry as Mass Deception --
Unsupported Elitism? --
Ideological Meanings --
Beyond Marx's Materialism --
Case Study: Consumerist Myths --
Political Economy and Ideology --
Manufacturing Consent --
Cultural Imperialism as Globalisation of Ideology --
Arguments and Criticisms --
Political Economic versus Cultural Approaches --
Complex Communication Flows and Consumer Resistance --
Conclusion: Avoiding Easy Dismissals --
7. The Construction of News --
Introduction --
Selection, Gate-Keeping and Agenda Setting --
News Values --
Out of Date? --
Case Study: Major Terrorist Attack Stories --
Constructing Stories --
Differences Between Outlets --
Medium --
Style and Market Position --
Political Stance --
Similarities: Back to Bias and Ideology? --
Class Bias --
Institutional Bias --
The Powerful Influencing the Powerful --
Infotainment and the persuit of clicks --
Conclusion: Signs of Hope? --
8. Public Service or Personal Entertainment? Controlling Media Orientation --
Introduction --
Public Service Broadcasting --
Reith and the BBC --
Contrasting PSB Arrangements --
Developing PSB Principles --
Enabling or Imposing? --
Censorship: Preventing Harm and Offence --
Avoiding Offence --
Pornography --
Violence --
Preventing Harm or Inhibiting Freedom? --
Commercial Competition and Consumer Choice --
Neo-Liberal Approaches --
US Broadcasting: A Free Market Model --
Digitalisation and the Decline of Regulation --
Digital Censorship --
Conclusion: A Rosy Commercial Future? --
9. Advertising: Emergence, Expansion and Transformation --
Introduction --
The Development of Advertising --
Emergence --
Growth and Professionalisation --
Post-Fordism, Niche Markets and Branding --
Modes of Persuasion: From Information and Use to Symbols and Identity --
Developing Frames --
Cultivating Cool --
Shifting Yet Mixed Approaches --
Advertising in the Digital Age --
Challenges to 'Traditional' Advertising --
A New Era of Advertising? --
Critical Perspectives on Advertising --
Manipulative Magic --
Subversive Consumers --
Interactive or Co-optive? --
Conclusion: Ubiquitous Commercialism --
10. Media and the Public Sphere: Digitalisation, Commercialisation and Fragmentation --
Introduction --
Media and the Public Sphere --
Habermas' Public Sphere --
Media and Public Engagement --
Nation as Imagined Community --
Decline of the Public Sphere --
From Facilitators to Shapers --
Commercially Driven Content --
A Digital Public Sphere? --
Online Participation and Democracy --
Enduring Power Differentials --
Fragmentation --
Globalisation --
Conclusion: Decline of the National Public --
11. Media, Community and Difference: From Mass Stigmatisation to Grassroots Identity Groups --
Introduction --
Media as Eroder of Difference --
Homogenisation and Atomisation --
Individualisation as De-Differentiation --
Stigmatising (and Amplifying) Difference --
Poverty Porn? A Stigmatised Underclass --
Folk Devils, Moral Panics and Labelling --
Targeting Community --
Local Media --
Niche Media and Interest Groupings --
Participatory Media and DIY Community --
DIY Print Media --
Online Micro-Communication --
Virtual Communities? --
Social Network Sites: Community or De-Differentiation? --
Conclusion: Communities or Loose Affinities? --
12. Media, Race and Ethnicity --
Introduction --
Racism and Exclusion --
Representation --
Under-Representation --
Stereotypical Representations --
The Reproduction of Subordination --
Promoting 'Positive' Images --
Reversing Stereotypes of Passivity --
Successful, Well-Adjusted, Integrated --
The Burden of Representation --
Hybridity, Diaspora and Transnationalism --
Shifting Ethnicities --
Diaspora --
Representing Diaspora --
Transnationalism --
Media Segregation? --
Newspapers, Film and Global Bollywood --
Ethnic and Transnational Specialisation in the Digital Era --
Conclusion: Empowerment or Ghettoisation? --
13. Media, Gender and Sexuality --
Introduction --
Constructions of Femininity --
Marginalisation of Women --
The Male Gaze --
Patriarchal Romance and Domesticity --
Post-Feminist Independence? --
Enduring Objectification --
Elitist Critics? --
Empowering Possibilities --
Reading the Romance --
Subversive Pleasures? --
Feminist Prosumers? --
Identifying Agency, Remaining Critical --
Media and Masculinities --
Masculinity or Masculinities? --
Contradictory Representations: Lads and Beyond --
Beyond Heterosexuality --
Conclusion: A Balanced Approach --
14. Saturation, Fluidity and Loss of Meaning --
Introduction --
Saturation as Loss of Meaning --
Consumerism: Expansion and Speed-Up --
Information Overload --
Media = Reality --
From Truth, to Ideology, to Simulacra --
Celebrity Culture as Hyperreal --
Identity: Fragmentation and Fluidity --
Recycling and Pastiche --
The Internet As Virtual Playground --
Simulated Identity? --
Internet as Extension of Everyday Life --
Case Study: Social Media --
Conclusion: Saturated but Real?

Paul Hodkinson's bestseller is back, once again exploring the concepts and complexities of the media in an accessible, balanced, and engaging style. Additions to the second edition include: A new chapter on advertising and sponsorship. Extensive revision and updating throughout all chapters. New material on technologies, censorship, online news, fan cultures and representations of poverty. Greater emphasis on and examples of digital, interactive and mobile media throughout. Fully reworked chapter on media, community and difference. Up-to-date examples covering everything from social media, contemporary advertising, news events and mobile technologies, to representations of class, ethnicity and gender. Combining a critical survey of the field with a finely judged assessment of cutting-edge developments, this second edition cements its reputation as the 'must have' text for any undergraduate student studying media, culture and society.

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