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Theory and design for mechanical measurements / Richard S. Figliola, Donald E. Beasley.

By: Figliola, R. S.
Contributor(s): Beasley, Donald E.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, c.2015Edition: 6th ed.Description: viii, 614 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.ISBN: 9781118881279 (hbk.).Subject(s): Measurement | | Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, General October2018Genre/Form: -- Reading bookDDC classification: 681.2
Contents:
1 Basic Concepts of Measurement Methods 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 General Measurement System 2 1.3 Experimental Test Plan 5 1.4 Calibration 15 1.5 Standards 23 1.6 Presenting Data 31 1.7 Summary 35 References 35 Nomenclature 36 Problems 36 2 Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Signals 43 2.1 Introduction 43 2.2 Input/output Signal Concepts 43 2.3 Signal Analysis 48 2.4 Signal Amplitude and Frequency 51 2.5 Fourier Transform and the Frequency Spectrum 65 2.6 Summary 73 References 73 Suggested Reading 74 Nomenclature 74 Problems 74 3 Measurement System Behavior 81 3.1 Introduction 81 3.2 General Model for a Measurement System 81 3.3 Special Cases of the General System Model 85 3.4 Transfer Functions 108 3.5 Phase Linearity 110 3.6 Multiple-Function Inputs 112 3.7 Coupled Systems 114 3.8 Summary 116 References 116 Nomenclature 116 Problems 117 4 Probability and Statistics 123 4.1 Introduction 123 4.2 Statistical Measurement Theory 124 4.3 Describing the Behavior of a Population 131 4.4 Statistics of Finite-Sized Data Sets 135 4.5 Hypothesis Testing 141 4.6 Chi-squared Distribution 144 4.7 Regression Analysis 148 4.8 Data Outlier Detection 155 4.9 Number of Measurements Required 156 4.10 Monte Carlo Simulations 158 4.11 Summary 160 References 161 Nomenclature 162 Problems 162 5 Uncertainty Analysis 168 5.1 Introduction 168 5.2 Measurement Errors 169 5.3 Design-Stage Uncertainty Analysis 171 5.4 Identifying Error Sources 176 5.5 Systematic and Random Errors and Standard Uncertainties 177 5.6 Uncertainty Analysis: Multi-Variable Error Propagation 180 5.7 Advanced-Stage Uncertainty Analysis 187 5.8 Multiple-Measurement Uncertainty Analysis 193 5.9 Correction for Correlated Errors 205 5.10 Nonsymmetrical Systematic Uncertainty Interval 208 5.11 Summary 209 References 210 Nomenclature 210 Problems 211 6 Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements 219 6.1 Introduction 219 6.2 Analog Devices: Current Measurements 220 6.3 Analog Devices: Voltage Measurements 224 6.4 Analog Devices: Resistance Measurements 228 6.5 Loading Errors and Impedance Matching 235 6.6 Analog Signal Conditioning: Amplifiers 240 6.7 Analog Signal Conditioning: Special-Purpose Circuits 245 6.8 Analog Signal Conditioning: Filters 250 6.9 Grounds, Shielding, and Connecting Wires 261 6.10 Summary 264 References 264 Nomenclature 264 Problems 265 7 Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition 271 7.1 Introduction 271 7.2 Sampling Concepts 272 7.3 Digital Devices: Bits and Words 280 7.4 Transmitting Digital Numbers: High and Low Signals 282 7.5 Voltage Measurements 284 7.6 Data Acquisition Systems 295 7.7 Data Acquisition System Components 296 7.8 Analog Input-Output Communication 301 7.9 Digital Input Output Communication 306 7.10 Digital Image Acquisition and Processing 311 7.11 Summary 316 References 316 Nomenclature 317 Problems 317 8 Temperature Measurements 322 8.1 Introduction 322 8.2 Temperature Standards and Definition 323 8.3 Thermometry Based on Thermal Expansion 326 8.4 Electrical Resistance Thermometry 328 8.5 Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement 342 8.6 Radiative Temperature Measurements 365 8.7 Physical Errors in Temperature Measurement 373 8.8 Summary 382 References 383 Suggested Reading 384 Nomenclature 384 Problems 385 9 Pressure and Velocity Measurements 392 9.1 Introduction 392 9.2 Pressure Concepts 392 9.3 Pressure Reference Instruments 395 9.4 Pressure Transducers 403 9.5 Pressure Transducer Calibration 410 9.6 Pressure Measurements in Moving Fluids 412 9.7 Modeling Pressure - Fluid Systems 416 9.8 Design and Installation: Transmission Effects 416 9.9 Acoustical Measurements 421 9.10 Fluid Velocity Measuring Systems 425 9.11 Summary 435 References 436 Nomenclature 437 Problems 438 10 Flow Measurements 442 10.1 Introduction 442 10.2 Historical Background 442 10.3 Flow Rate Concepts 443 10.4 Volume Flow Rate Through Velocity Determination 444 10.5 Pressure Differential Meters 446 10.6 Insertion Volume Flow Meters 464 10.7 Mass Flow Meters 474 10.8 Flow Meter Calibration and Standards 480 10.9 Estimating Standard Flow Rate 481 10.10 Summary 481 References 481 Nomenclature 482 Problems 483 11 Strain Measurement 487 11.1 Introduction 487 11.2 Stress and Strain 487 11.3 Resistance Strain Gauges 490 11.4 Strain Gauge Electrical Circuits 497 11.5 Practical Considerations for Strain Measurement 500 11.6 Apparent Strain and Temperature Compensation 504 11.7 Optical Strain Measuring Techniques 514 11.8 Summary 521 References 521 Nomenclature 522 Problems 523 12 Mechatronics: Sensors, Actuators, and Controls 527 12.1 Introduction 527 12.2 Sensors 527 12.3 Actuators 555 12.4 Controls 561 12.5 Summary 580 References 580 Nomenclature 580 Problems 581 Appendix A Property Data and Conversion Factors 585 Appendix B Laplace Transform Basics 592 B.1 Final Value Theorem 593 B.2 Laplace Transform Pairs 593 Reference 593 Appendix (Online Only) A Guide For Technical Writing A Guide for Technical Writing References Glossary 594 Index 603
Summary: Figliola and Beasley’s 6th edition of Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements provides a time-tested and respected approach to the theory of engineering measurements. An emphasis on the role of statistics and uncertainty analysis in the measuring process makes this text unique. While the measurements discipline is very broad, careful selection of topical coverage, establishes the physical principles and practical techniques for quantifying many engineering variables that have multiple engineering applications. In the sixth edition, Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements continues to emphasize the conceptual design framework for selecting and specifying equipment, test procedures and interpreting test results. Coverage of topics, applications and devices has been updated—including information on data acquisition hardware and communication protocols, infrared imaging, and microphones. New examples that illustrate either case studies or interesting vignettes related to the application of measurements in current practice are introduced.
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Previous edition : 2011.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

1 Basic Concepts of Measurement Methods 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 General Measurement System 2 1.3 Experimental Test Plan 5 1.4 Calibration 15 1.5 Standards 23 1.6 Presenting Data 31 1.7 Summary 35 References 35 Nomenclature 36 Problems 36 2 Static and Dynamic Characteristics of Signals 43 2.1 Introduction 43 2.2 Input/output Signal Concepts 43 2.3 Signal Analysis 48 2.4 Signal Amplitude and Frequency 51 2.5 Fourier Transform and the Frequency Spectrum 65 2.6 Summary 73 References 73 Suggested Reading 74 Nomenclature 74 Problems 74 3 Measurement System Behavior 81 3.1 Introduction 81 3.2 General Model for a Measurement System 81 3.3 Special Cases of the General System Model 85 3.4 Transfer Functions 108 3.5 Phase Linearity 110 3.6 Multiple-Function Inputs 112 3.7 Coupled Systems 114 3.8 Summary 116 References 116 Nomenclature 116 Problems 117 4 Probability and Statistics 123 4.1 Introduction 123 4.2 Statistical Measurement Theory 124 4.3 Describing the Behavior of a Population 131 4.4 Statistics of Finite-Sized Data Sets 135 4.5 Hypothesis Testing 141 4.6 Chi-squared Distribution 144 4.7 Regression Analysis 148 4.8 Data Outlier Detection 155 4.9 Number of Measurements Required 156 4.10 Monte Carlo Simulations 158 4.11 Summary 160 References 161 Nomenclature 162 Problems 162 5 Uncertainty Analysis 168 5.1 Introduction 168 5.2 Measurement Errors 169 5.3 Design-Stage Uncertainty Analysis 171 5.4 Identifying Error Sources 176 5.5 Systematic and Random Errors and Standard Uncertainties 177 5.6 Uncertainty Analysis: Multi-Variable Error Propagation 180 5.7 Advanced-Stage Uncertainty Analysis 187 5.8 Multiple-Measurement Uncertainty Analysis 193 5.9 Correction for Correlated Errors 205 5.10 Nonsymmetrical Systematic Uncertainty Interval 208 5.11 Summary 209 References 210 Nomenclature 210 Problems 211 6 Analog Electrical Devices and Measurements 219 6.1 Introduction 219 6.2 Analog Devices: Current Measurements 220 6.3 Analog Devices: Voltage Measurements 224 6.4 Analog Devices: Resistance Measurements 228 6.5 Loading Errors and Impedance Matching 235 6.6 Analog Signal Conditioning: Amplifiers 240 6.7 Analog Signal Conditioning: Special-Purpose Circuits 245 6.8 Analog Signal Conditioning: Filters 250 6.9 Grounds, Shielding, and Connecting Wires 261 6.10 Summary 264 References 264 Nomenclature 264 Problems 265 7 Sampling, Digital Devices, and Data Acquisition 271 7.1 Introduction 271 7.2 Sampling Concepts 272 7.3 Digital Devices: Bits and Words 280 7.4 Transmitting Digital Numbers: High and Low Signals 282 7.5 Voltage Measurements 284 7.6 Data Acquisition Systems 295 7.7 Data Acquisition System Components 296 7.8 Analog Input-Output Communication 301 7.9 Digital Input Output Communication 306 7.10 Digital Image Acquisition and Processing 311 7.11 Summary 316 References 316 Nomenclature 317 Problems 317 8 Temperature Measurements 322 8.1 Introduction 322 8.2 Temperature Standards and Definition 323 8.3 Thermometry Based on Thermal Expansion 326 8.4 Electrical Resistance Thermometry 328 8.5 Thermoelectric Temperature Measurement 342 8.6 Radiative Temperature Measurements 365 8.7 Physical Errors in Temperature Measurement 373 8.8 Summary 382 References 383 Suggested Reading 384 Nomenclature 384 Problems 385 9 Pressure and Velocity Measurements 392 9.1 Introduction 392 9.2 Pressure Concepts 392 9.3 Pressure Reference Instruments 395 9.4 Pressure Transducers 403 9.5 Pressure Transducer Calibration 410 9.6 Pressure Measurements in Moving Fluids 412 9.7 Modeling Pressure - Fluid Systems 416 9.8 Design and Installation: Transmission Effects 416 9.9 Acoustical Measurements 421 9.10 Fluid Velocity Measuring Systems 425 9.11 Summary 435 References 436 Nomenclature 437 Problems 438 10 Flow Measurements 442 10.1 Introduction 442 10.2 Historical Background 442 10.3 Flow Rate Concepts 443 10.4 Volume Flow Rate Through Velocity Determination 444 10.5 Pressure Differential Meters 446 10.6 Insertion Volume Flow Meters 464 10.7 Mass Flow Meters 474 10.8 Flow Meter Calibration and Standards 480 10.9 Estimating Standard Flow Rate 481 10.10 Summary 481 References 481 Nomenclature 482 Problems 483 11 Strain Measurement 487 11.1 Introduction 487 11.2 Stress and Strain 487 11.3 Resistance Strain Gauges 490 11.4 Strain Gauge Electrical Circuits 497 11.5 Practical Considerations for Strain Measurement 500 11.6 Apparent Strain and Temperature Compensation 504 11.7 Optical Strain Measuring Techniques 514 11.8 Summary 521 References 521 Nomenclature 522 Problems 523 12 Mechatronics: Sensors, Actuators, and Controls 527 12.1 Introduction 527 12.2 Sensors 527 12.3 Actuators 555 12.4 Controls 561 12.5 Summary 580 References 580 Nomenclature 580 Problems 581 Appendix A Property Data and Conversion Factors 585 Appendix B Laplace Transform Basics 592 B.1 Final Value Theorem 593 B.2 Laplace Transform Pairs 593 Reference 593 Appendix (Online Only) A Guide For Technical Writing A Guide for Technical Writing References Glossary 594 Index 603

Figliola and Beasley’s 6th edition of Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements provides a time-tested and respected approach to the theory of engineering measurements. An emphasis on the role of statistics and uncertainty analysis in the measuring process makes this text unique. While the measurements discipline is very broad, careful selection of topical coverage, establishes the physical principles and practical techniques for quantifying many engineering variables that have multiple engineering applications. In the sixth edition, Theory and Design for Mechanical Measurements continues to emphasize the conceptual design framework for selecting and specifying equipment, test procedures and interpreting test results. Coverage of topics, applications and devices has been updated—including information on data acquisition hardware and communication protocols, infrared imaging, and microphones. New examples that illustrate either case studies or interesting vignettes related to the application of measurements in current practice are introduced.

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