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Thought & knowledge : An introduction to critical thinking / Diane F. Halpern.

By: Halpern, Diane F.
Material type: materialTypeLabelBookPublisher: Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, c2003Edition: 4th ed.Description: xii, 467 p. : ill. ; 26 cm.ISBN: 0805839658 (alk. paper); 0805839666 (alk. paper).Other title: Thought and knowledge.Subject(s): Critical thinkingGenre/Form: Scientific Thinking- Prep -- Reading book -- Computer Science -- Semester 2. 2008/2009DDC classification: 153 Online resources: Table of contents only | Publisher description
Contents:
Machine generated contents note: 1 Thinking: An Introduction 1 -- The Need for Critical Thinking Skills 2 -- Empirical Evidence That Thinking Can Be Improved 10 -- Learning to Think Critically: A Four Part Model 14 -- Intelligence and Thinking Skills 21 -- Learning to Be Intelligent 25 -- Becoming A Better Thinker: The Quick and Easy Way 26 -- Thinking about Thinking 27 -- Critical Thinking: Hollywood Style 32 -- A Framework for Thinking 34 -- Chapter Summary 37 -- Terms to Know 38 -- 2 Memory: The Acquisition, Retention, -- and Retrieval of Knowledge 39 -- Memory As the Mediator of Cognitive Processes 40 -- Acquisition 49 -- Retention 59 -- Retrieval 63 -- Working Memory 66 -- Metamemory 69 -- Mnemonics 71 -- Biases in Memory 79 -- Long-Term Accuracy Is Sometimes Excellent 80 -- Applying the Framework 81 -- Chapter Summary 83 -- Terms to Know 84 -- 3 The Relationship Between Thought and Language 87 -- Thought and Language 88 -- Words and Their Meanings 100 -- Language: Tool or Master of Thought? 106 -- Comprehension: The Reason for Language 118 -- Applying the Framework 132 -- Chapter Summary 134 -- Terms to Know 134 -- 4 Reasoning: Drawing Deductively Valid Conclusions 137 -- Logical and Psychological 138 -- Linear Ordering 141 -- If, Then Statements 146 -- Combinatorial Reasoning 155 -- Syllogistic Reasoning 156 -- Probabilistic Reasoning 173 -- Reasoning in Everyday Contexts 174 -- Reasoning Gone Wrong 176 -- Applying the Framework 177 -- Chapter Summary 178 -- Terms to Know 179 -- 5 Analyzing Arguments 182 -- The Anatomy of an Argument 183 -- Diagramming the Structure of an Argument 189 -- Actively Open-Minded Thinking 193 -- Evaluating the Strength of an Argument 195 -- How to Analyze an Argument 204 -- A Template for Writing Sound Arguments 205 -- Persuasion and Propaganda 207 -- Explaining as Knowing 209 -- Applying the Framework 226 -- Chapter Summary 227 -- Terms to Know 228 -- 6 Thinking as Hypothesis Testing 231 -- Understanding Hypothesis Testing 232 -- Inductive and Deductive Methods 233 -- Populations and Samples 236 -- Science versus Science Fiction 241 -- Determining Cause 243 -- Thinking About Errors 253 -- Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 254 -- Occult Beliefs and the Paranormal 256 -- Thinking as an Intuitive Scientist 257 -- Applying the Framework 259 -- Chapter Summary 260 -- Terms to Know 261 -- 7 Likelihood and Uncertainty: -- Understanding Probabilities 264 -- Probabilistic Nature of the World 265 -- Factors Affecting Judgments about -- Likelihood and Uncertainty 270 -- Using Probability 272 -- Expected Values 282 -- Subjective Probability 285 -- Making Probabilistic Decisions 288 -- Risk 296 -- Statistical Use and Abuse 300 -- Applying the Framework 303 -- Chapter Summary 305 -- Terms to Know 306 -- 8 Decision Making 308 -- Making Sound Decisions 309 -- Pitfalls and Pratfalls in Decision Making 315 -- Evaluating Consequences 327 -- Elimination by Aspects 330 -- Preparing A Worksheet 331 -- Postdecision Commitment and Evaluation 339 -- Applying the Framework 343 -- Chapter Summary 345 -- Terms to Know 345 -- 9 Development of Problem-Solving Skills 348 -- What Is A Problem? 349 -- Anatomy of A Problem 350 -- Stages in Problem Solving 352 -- Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems 355 -- Problem Planning and Representation 356 -- Problem-Solving Strategies 372 -- Problem-Solving Problems 387 -- Applying the Framework 391 -- Chapter Summary 392 -- Terms to Know 393 -- 10 Creative Thinking 396 -- Defining Creativity 397 -- Creativity as a Cognitive Process 404 -- Encouraging Creativity 412 -- Strategies for Creative Thinking 416 -- Applying the Framework 425 -- Chapter Summary 427 -- Terms to Know 428 -- 11 The Last Word 430.
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Includes bibliographical references and indexes.

Machine generated contents note: 1 Thinking: An Introduction 1 -- The Need for Critical Thinking Skills 2 -- Empirical Evidence That Thinking Can Be Improved 10 -- Learning to Think Critically: A Four Part Model 14 -- Intelligence and Thinking Skills 21 -- Learning to Be Intelligent 25 -- Becoming A Better Thinker: The Quick and Easy Way 26 -- Thinking about Thinking 27 -- Critical Thinking: Hollywood Style 32 -- A Framework for Thinking 34 -- Chapter Summary 37 -- Terms to Know 38 -- 2 Memory: The Acquisition, Retention, -- and Retrieval of Knowledge 39 -- Memory As the Mediator of Cognitive Processes 40 -- Acquisition 49 -- Retention 59 -- Retrieval 63 -- Working Memory 66 -- Metamemory 69 -- Mnemonics 71 -- Biases in Memory 79 -- Long-Term Accuracy Is Sometimes Excellent 80 -- Applying the Framework 81 -- Chapter Summary 83 -- Terms to Know 84 -- 3 The Relationship Between Thought and Language 87 -- Thought and Language 88 -- Words and Their Meanings 100 -- Language: Tool or Master of Thought? 106 -- Comprehension: The Reason for Language 118 -- Applying the Framework 132 -- Chapter Summary 134 -- Terms to Know 134 -- 4 Reasoning: Drawing Deductively Valid Conclusions 137 -- Logical and Psychological 138 -- Linear Ordering 141 -- If, Then Statements 146 -- Combinatorial Reasoning 155 -- Syllogistic Reasoning 156 -- Probabilistic Reasoning 173 -- Reasoning in Everyday Contexts 174 -- Reasoning Gone Wrong 176 -- Applying the Framework 177 -- Chapter Summary 178 -- Terms to Know 179 -- 5 Analyzing Arguments 182 -- The Anatomy of an Argument 183 -- Diagramming the Structure of an Argument 189 -- Actively Open-Minded Thinking 193 -- Evaluating the Strength of an Argument 195 -- How to Analyze an Argument 204 -- A Template for Writing Sound Arguments 205 -- Persuasion and Propaganda 207 -- Explaining as Knowing 209 -- Applying the Framework 226 -- Chapter Summary 227 -- Terms to Know 228 -- 6 Thinking as Hypothesis Testing 231 -- Understanding Hypothesis Testing 232 -- Inductive and Deductive Methods 233 -- Populations and Samples 236 -- Science versus Science Fiction 241 -- Determining Cause 243 -- Thinking About Errors 253 -- Self-Fulfilling Prophecies 254 -- Occult Beliefs and the Paranormal 256 -- Thinking as an Intuitive Scientist 257 -- Applying the Framework 259 -- Chapter Summary 260 -- Terms to Know 261 -- 7 Likelihood and Uncertainty: -- Understanding Probabilities 264 -- Probabilistic Nature of the World 265 -- Factors Affecting Judgments about -- Likelihood and Uncertainty 270 -- Using Probability 272 -- Expected Values 282 -- Subjective Probability 285 -- Making Probabilistic Decisions 288 -- Risk 296 -- Statistical Use and Abuse 300 -- Applying the Framework 303 -- Chapter Summary 305 -- Terms to Know 306 -- 8 Decision Making 308 -- Making Sound Decisions 309 -- Pitfalls and Pratfalls in Decision Making 315 -- Evaluating Consequences 327 -- Elimination by Aspects 330 -- Preparing A Worksheet 331 -- Postdecision Commitment and Evaluation 339 -- Applying the Framework 343 -- Chapter Summary 345 -- Terms to Know 345 -- 9 Development of Problem-Solving Skills 348 -- What Is A Problem? 349 -- Anatomy of A Problem 350 -- Stages in Problem Solving 352 -- Well-Defined and Ill-Defined Problems 355 -- Problem Planning and Representation 356 -- Problem-Solving Strategies 372 -- Problem-Solving Problems 387 -- Applying the Framework 391 -- Chapter Summary 392 -- Terms to Know 393 -- 10 Creative Thinking 396 -- Defining Creativity 397 -- Creativity as a Cognitive Process 404 -- Encouraging Creativity 412 -- Strategies for Creative Thinking 416 -- Applying the Framework 425 -- Chapter Summary 427 -- Terms to Know 428 -- 11 The Last Word 430.

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